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Sunday, December 14, 2014

An afternoon at the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum

The curse of the Pharaoh
As a kid, I read about the alleged curse of the Pharaoh that affected the members of the Howard Carter expedition, after the discovery of the tomb of the boy king Tutankhamun in 1925. Mysterious deaths caused by elements (or Tutankhamun's priests to guard the royal tomb) have spiked the interest of media for years.

Made of solid gold, precious colored glass and jewels, King Tut's innermost coffin is one of the most ornate and rare examples of burial regalia.  The museum houses a replica of the same.

A brief history of ancient Egypt:
The Old Kingdom (2663 BCE -2195 BCE), also known as the Pyramid Age, because virtually all of Egypt's population was mobilized to construct the pyramids. At this time, only the king was thought to deserve a proper burial. However, private tombs called mastabas were sometimes donated by the king to worthy individuals.

Families were expected to care for their dead ancestors by leaving them offerings. It was believed that ka, or the spirit of the deceased, would consume the spirit of the food.

The eastern side of a coffin, easy to identify because the eyes are meant to witness the rising sun each morning.

The First Intermediate Period (2195 BCE - 2066 BCE)
The glory of the Old Kingdom waned when Egypt was severely affected by a drought. The yearly flooding of the River Nile failed leading to famine and warfare, The pharaoh as the 'provider'  lost control of the situation, and the formerly dominant central government collapsed into warring provinces called nomes. The royal workshops could no longer exert control over local artisans; thus, they were free to express regional tastes at the behest  of their patrons.

The Middle Kingdom (2066 BCE-1650 BCE)
A warrior king named Mentuhotep II reunified Egypt. This period is best known for its literary classics like Story of Sinuhe and the Admonition of Ipuwer.

The New Kingdom(1550 BCE-1064 BCE)
The Middle Kingdom ended with the peaceful invasion by the Hyksos. A family of Theban warriors drove the Hyksos out of Egypt. The New Kingdom is famous for kings like Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, Rameses and queens like Hatshepsut, Tiyi, Nefertiti. During this time, the science of preservation reached its technological peak.

Women in Ancient Egypt could marry, divorce, and own property. They enjoyed equal rights and responsibilities as men. Many girls were trained as musicians and chantresses. Goddesses were not mere reflections of their male counterparts. They had their own aspects of nature and acted independently from their mates.

Statue of Queen Cleopatra VII,  the last pharaoh of Egypt, was born into the Macedonian family called the Ptolemies, who were infamous for their vicious infighting. Matricide, patricide, and fratricide were common in many generations.

The Romans coveted Egypt as a bountiful source of grain they could use to feed their army. They used the infighting in the Ptolemy family as an excuse to send an envoy to Egypt: Julius Caesar. But Caesar fell in love with Cleopatra, and brought her back to Rome. However, when Caesar was murdered on the Senate steps, she fled back to Egypt.

The next envoy to Egypt was Mark Antony, a friend of Caesar, who fell in love Cleopatra too and together they fought against Rome until they were defeated. She committed suicide from an asp bite so she would not be dragged through the Roman streets.

Model of the temple of Abu Simbel 
Built by Ramesses II
(Note the scale of grandeur with respect to the model people standing at the entrance)

The temples were not merely places of worship; they fueled the Egyptian economy. Donations arriving at the temple for the resident deity were recycled back into the economy. The kings granted land to the temples, as well as prisoners of war, thus providing a workforce of linen weaving women. Linen was a form of currency and considered a worthy gift at any temple. The king was also responsible in keeping the temples stocked with incense to pacify the gods.

A fragment from The book of the Dead, a guide to the afterlife

Animals in Ancient Egypt
Many Egyptian deities were associated with specific animals. Baboons were believed to personify the Egyptian deity Djehuti, god of record-keeping, writing, and wisdom. Crocodiles represented Sobek, the crocodile god of the Nile. Uraeus or a rearing cobra was the image of the snake goddess, Wadjet, and was often worn on a king's brow. She was believed to protect the pharaoh. Cats were sacred to Bastet, goddess of music and household. Ancient Egyptians who wanted to honor a deity would pay for an animal to be mummified and donate it to the god or goddess's temple.

Amun Ram associated with the sun god Amun

Amuletic jewelry
In ancient Egypt, people wore amulets emblematic of a particular deity to be protected or be endowed with certain special abilities. For example, the amulet of goddess Hathor (mistress of music and  beauty) was thought to make a man or woman more attractive or more skilled at making music.

If these notes interest you, please take some time to visit the museum.

Address:1660 Park Avenue, San Jose, CA 95191
General admission: $9
Recommended duration: 2-3 hours

1 comment:

azhor said...

Nice article Made me think..

Ram associated with Sun god, Ramesses for Egyptian pharaohs, and there is Hindu God Ram.

Wonder if its just a coincidence that the word RAM symbolizes piousness in two of the worlds most ancient civilizations